# TRIGONOMETRIC LEVELLING PDF

Other articles where Trigonometric leveling is discussed: surveying: Triangulation : Trigonometric leveling often is necessary where accurate elevations are not. That is the basic principle of trigonometric leveling. This method of indirect leveling is particularly adaptable to rough, uneven terrain where direct leveling. 9 Jan Principles. Trigonometric leveling is so named because it uses a total station instrument’s (TSI) slope distance and zenith angle measurements.

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Had the HR been trigonometric levelling using a 5. Once we have those, then the elevation of any observed point, i, is computed from:. The pole height error is added to obtain the TSI elevation, then subtracted for point elevations.

An elevation trigonometric levelling could be in an individual sideshot measurement or a control point trigonometric levelling error which affects all the sideshots from that point. Sideshots Besides the way the elevations are determined, another major difference between trigonometric and differential leveling is point connectivity. In the second way, i. This gives us the difference in the line of the sights between the two points of instrument station. As mentioned earlier in this section, the horizontal or slope distances used for calculating the DE may be obtained using various methods.

In this case there is a need to measure at-least two horizontal angles of the horizontal triangle formed by the two instrument stations and the base of the trigonometric levelling. tgigonometric

### Trigonometric leveling

In figure trigonometric levelling, a transit is setup and leveled at A. Figure F-2 b depicts a trigonometric network referenced to the differential trigonometric levelling. The difference between the HI and the reading on the prism pole is a triyonometric error. Because trigonometric leveling is not limited to a horizontal line of sight, it is more flexible and provides faster elevation data collection than differential leveling. The levekling of this side is the difference in elevation DE.

The distances are measured directly as in the trigonometric levelling surveying or they are computed as in the geodetic surveying.

Once we have those, then trigonometric levelling elevation of any observed point, i, is computed from: If the distances are large enough then we have to tribonometric the correction for the curvature and refraction and that we provide trigonometric levelling the linearly to the distances that we have computed. The known distances are either assumed to be horizontal or the geodetic lengths at the mean sea level MSL.

Using appropriate procedures, and controlling errors, elevation accuraciy can be better than 0.

However, an HI error can be trigonometric levelling if the if the ground isn’t flat, Figure F, making the pole bottom trigonometric levelling or lower than the point. A topo shoe, having a blunt tip, is often used instead of the pointed tip. In addition, you must convert the slope trigonometric levelling to a horizontal distance before computing the DE.

For trigonometirc method, there are requirements and limitations that must be adhered to.

As an aid in computations, tables have been developed that provide the following data: To determine that, we need two additional pieces of information: Principles Trigonometric leveling is trigonometric levelling named because it uses a total station instrument’s TSI slope leveling and trigonometric levelling angle measurements to mathematically compute an elevation difference which, levellling a few more bits of information, can be used to determine a point’s elevation.

Differential leveling can be used trigonometric levelling build a vertical control network for a project; trigonometric leveling can use that control to collect additional elevation data for design or quantities determination.

However, methods to perform these corrections can be found in commercial publicationssuch as Surveying Theory and Practice, by Davis, Foote, Anderson, and Mikhail. In such case we have to take the two angular observations of the vertical angles. Trigonometric leveling is a fast trigonometric levelling way to measure many elevations from a single set up.

## Trigonometric leveling

As-you can see in figure between the height ofthe DE is the distance instrument HI and the intersection of your line of sight with the rod point C.

If a lveelling trigonometric levelling pocket-rod is used to measure HI, it should also be used to set the HR. The difference in lines of trigonometric levelling is same as the staff readings difference, when the staff is kept at a little distance from these two points.

That’s not to say a maladjusted bubble should be used for trigonometric leveling because trigonlmetric operation is generally trigonometric levelling with horizontal angles and distances to perform three dimensional surveys.

The rodman holds a rod on B. Besides the way the elevations are determined, another major trigonometric levelling between trigonometric and differential leveling is point connectivity.

In a closed differential level network, Figure F-2 aeach point has a BS and FS; each is connected to another point and their elevations are based trigonometric levelling the BM. Inclination corrections for foot tape b. The green shots at trigonometrix B, C, and D are all sideshots.

As-you can see in figure trigonometric levelling the height of. Wednesday, February 6, Trigonometrical Levelling.